maria maria

Ladic Caliprian


Ladic Caliprian, so named for the Lada (Λαδῑ́ Ladī́) river that runs through what is now the Caliprian capital city of Ficrios, was the form of classical Caliprian as spoken on the largest of the Caliprian islands in the era around 1000-400BC.

By the end of the classical period Ladic Caliprian in particular had gained a prestige dialect status due to the role of Ficrios in Caliprian politics and the language was still kept in both legal and liturgical use despite the spoken vernacular beginning to evolve further into what became Middle Caliprian.

Compared to Pre-Caliprian, Ladic is grammatically rather conservative, with most change coming in the form of distinctive phonological differences from both Pre-Caliprian and other contemporary dialects.


  1. Orthography
  2. Stem Changes
  3. Nouns
    1. Changes from Pre-Caliprian
    2. Declensions
  4. Adjectives
    1. Changes from Pre-Caliprian
  5. Verbs
    1. Changes from Pre-Caliprian
    2. Paradigm
    3. Past Tense
  6. Pronouns
    1. First Person
    2. Second Person
    3. Third Person
  7. Determiners
    1. Distal
    2. Proximal
    3. Definite Article
  8. Syntax
  9. Examples
    1. Ezekiel 34:27


IPA Latin Greek
/a/ · /aː/ a · ā α · ᾱ
/e/ · /eː/ e · ē ε · η
/i/ · /iː/ i · ī ι · ῑ
/o/ · /oː/ o · ō ο · ω
/u/ · /uː/ u · ū υ · ῡ
/m/ · /n/ m · n μ · ν
/l/ · /r/ l · r λ · ρ
/p/ · /b/ p · b π · β
/t/ · /d/ t · d τ · δ
/k/ · /g/ k · g κ · γ
/f/ · /v/ f · v φ · ϝ
/x/ · /h/ ch · h χ · ͱ
/θ/ · /s/ th · s θ · σ / ς

Stress in both orthographies may be marked via an acute accent, e.g nístos / νίστος “lord”

Stem changes

Ladic Caliprian relies on suffixation to attach grammatical meaning to a root, though there are many rules that govern this attachment.

There are also some stems in Caliprian that have pre-consonantal and pre-vowel forms, such as génira “I shall beget”, which has the stem [génir/s-], and has a 3rd person singular active indicative form of génist (génir/s- + -t). This is most commonly in the form of r/s alteration like the previous example.


Changes from Pre-Caliprian


Root stem · kóts “foot” [kód-, ked-]

  Singular Dual Plural
Nominative kóts [kód-i]¹ kóda [kód-a] kódes [kód-es]
Accusative kóda [kód-a]² kóda [kód-a] kódas [kód-as]
Genitive kedés [ked-es]   kedṓm [ked-ōm]
Ablative kedés [ked-es]   kedmós [ked-mós]
Dative kedéi [ked-ei]   kedsú [ked-sú]
Instrumental kedī́ [ked-ī]   kedī́ [ked-ī́]


  1. Some nouns have a distinct nominative singular form. Often this is from natural voicing assimilation (e.g kóts “foot”, with stems kod-, ked-). However, some irregular nominative singulars are formed from the stem as would be expected but with a lengthened final vowel and a null ending (e.g astḗr “star”, with stems astér-, astr-)
  2. This form is -m after a vowel (e.g accusative singular dráum from dráus “tree”, with stems dráu-/dé-, dar/dr-)

Other examples of consonant root stem nouns

Thematic s-stem · khóimos “citizen” [khóim-]

  Singular Dual Plural
Nominative khóimos [khóim-os] khóimō [khóim-ō] khóimōs [khóim-ōs]
Accusative khóimom [khóim-om] khóimō [khóim-ō] khóimōs [khóim-ōs]
Genitive khóimoria [khóim-oria]   khóimōm [khóim-ōm]
Ablative khóimiad [khóim-iad]   khóimomos [khóim-omos]
Dative khóimei [khóim-ei]   khóimōru [khóim-ōru]
Instrumental khóimo [khóim-o]   khóimōs [khóim-ōs]

Other examples of thematic s-stem nouns

Athematic s-stem · kéros “penis” [kér-]

  Singular Dual Plural
Nominative kéros [kér-os] kérerī [kér-erī] kérōs [kér-ōs]
Accusative kéros [kér-os] kérerī [kér-erī] kérōs [kér-ōs]
Genitive kéreros [kér-eros]   kérerōm [kér-erōm]
Ablative kéreros [kér-eros]   kéresmos [kér-esmos]
Dative kérerei [kér-erei]   kéreru [kér-eru]
Instrumental kéreri [kér-eri]   kéreri [kér-eri]

Other examples of athematic s-stem nouns

Athematic u-stem · ártus “time” [árt-]

  Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ártus [árt-us] ártāu [árt-āu] ártēs [árt-ēs]
Accusative ártum [árt-um] ártāu [árt-āu] ártēs [árt-ēs]
Genitive ártaus [árt-aus]   ártēm [árt-ēm]
Ablative ártaus [árt-aus]   ártumos [árt-umos]
Dative ártēi [árt-ēi]   árturu [árt-uru]
Instrumental ártū [árt-ū]   ártui [árt-ui]

Other examples of athematic u-stem nouns

Athematic i-stem · dáutis “setting, sinking” [dáut-]

  Singular Dual Plural
Nominative dáutis [dáut-is] dáutia [dáut-ia] dáuteies [dáut-eies]
Accusative dáutim [dáut-im] dáutia [dáut-ia] dáuteies [dáut-eies]
Genitive dáuteis [dáut-eis]   dáuteiōm [dáut-eiōm]
Ablative dáuteis [dáut-eis]   dáutimos [dáut-imos]
Dative dáutei [dáut-ei]   dáutiru [dáut-iru]
Instrumental dáutī [dáut-ī]   dáutī [dáut-ī]

Other examples of athematic i-stem nouns

Thematic m-stem · hiórom “crop” [hiór-]

  Singular Dual Plural
Nominative hiórom [hiór-om] hióroia [hiór-oia] hióra [hiór-a]
Accusative hiórom [hiór-om] hióroia [hiór-oia] hióra [hiór-a]
Genitive hióroria [hiór-oria]   hiórōm [hiór-ōm]
Ablative hióriad [hiór-iad]   hióromos [hiór-omos]
Dative hiórei [hiór-ei]   hióroiru [hiór-oiru]
Instrumental hióro [hiór-o]   hiórōs [hiór-ōs]

Other examples of thematic m-stem nouns

Thematic a-stem · térsa “land” [térs-]

  Singular Dual Plural
Nominative térsa [térs-a] térsāi [térs-āi] térsai [térs-ai]
Accusative térsam [térs-am] térsāi [térs-āi] térsai [térs-ai]
Genitive térsas [térs-as]   térsaum [térs-aum]
Ablative térsas [térs-as]   térsāmos [térs-āmos]
Dative térsāi [térs-āi]   térsāru [térs-āru]
Instrumental térsāi [térs-āi]   térsāi [térs-āi]

Other examples of thematic ā-stem nouns

Thematic ī-stem · iránī “flowing blood” [irán-]

  Singular Dual Plural
Nominative iránī [isán-ī] isánīa [isán-īa] iránīes [isán-īes]
Accusative iránīm [isán-īm] isánīa [isán-īa] iránīes [isán-īes]
Genitive iránias [isán-ias]   irániāum [isán-iāum]
Ablative iránias [isán-ias]   irániāmos [isán-iāmos]
Dative irániāi [isán-iāi]   irániāru [isán-iāru]
Instrumental irániāi [isán-iāi]   irániāi [isán-iāi]

Other examples of thematic ī-stem nouns


Changes from Pre-Caliprian


Changes from Pre-Caliprian


Imperfective I · némo “I take” [ném-]

  ígo “I” tū́/tā́u “thou” hó/hī́/íd “he/she/it” féi/fiā́ “we” iū́/iā́u “you all” tói/tā́is/ī́ “they”
Act. Ind. némo némes német némomos némete némont
Act. Sbjv. anémo anémēs anémēt anémōmos anémēte anémōnt
Act. Opt. anémoim anémois anémoit anémoime anémoite anémoiat
Med. Ind. némor¹ némtar némtor¹ némosta németa némontor
Med. Sbjv. anémorom anémtares anémtoret anémoda anémeda anémonta
Med. Opt. anémoia anémoita anémoita anémoida anémoida anémoiata
Imperative - némē - - némēte -


  1. Passive forms ending in -or may sometimes be seen in their archaic form of -ōr in poetry, often to satisfy poetic metre.

Other examples of imperfective I verbs

Imperfective II · linépmi “I leave” [linép-, limp-]

  ígo “I” tū́/tā́u “thou” só/sī́/íd “he/she/it” féi/fiā́ “we” iū́/iā́u “you all” tói/tā́is/ī́ “they”
Act. Ind. linépmi linépsi linépti limpmós limpté limpént
Act. Sbjv. alinépo alinépes alinépet alinépomos alinépete alinépont
Act. Opt. alimpiám alimpiás alimpiát alimpīmé alimpīté alimpī́nt
Med. Ind. limpár limptár limpór limpmósta limptá limpatór
Med. Sbjv. alinépor alinéptar alinéptor alinépmosta alinépta alinépontor
Med. Opt. alimpī́a alimpī́ta alimpī́ta alimpī́nda alimpī́da alimpī́ata
Imperative - linépe - - linépete -

Other examples of imperfective II verbs

Perfective · déiska “I shall point out” [déisk-]

  ígo “I” tū́/tā́u “thou” hó/hī́/íd “he/she/it” féi/fiā́ “we” iū́/iā́u “you all” tói/tā́is/ī́ “they”
Act. Ind. déiska¹ déisk déiskt déiskme déiskte déiskat
Act. Sbjv. adéisko adéiskes adéisket adéiskomos adéiskete adéiskont
Act. Opt. adéiskiam adéiskias adéiskiat adéiskīme adéiskīte adéiskīat
Med. Ind. déiska déiskta déiskta déiskoda déiskeda déiskata
Med. Sbjv. adéiskor adéisktar adéisktor adéiskosta adéisketa adéiskontor
Med. Opt. adéiskīa adéiskīta adéiskīta adéiskīnda adéiskīnda adéiskīata
Imperative - déiske - - déiskete -


  1. This form is -m after a vowel (e.g pū́m “I shall be, become”)

Other examples of perfective verbs

Stative · fóida “I know” [fóid-, féid-, fid-]

  ígo “I” tū́/tā́u “thou” hó/hī́/íd “he/she/it” féi/fiā́ “we” iū́/iā́u “you all” tói/tā́is/ī́ “they”
Act. Ind. fóida¹ fóista fóide² fidmé fisté fidḗr
Act. Sbjv. aféido aféides aféidet aféidomos aféidete aféidont
Act. Opt. afidiám afidiás afidiát afidīmé afidīté afidī́nt


  1. This form is -ma after a vowel (e.g sistṓma “I stand” [sistṓ-, sistā́-, sista-])
  2. From Greek influence, this form may sometimes be seen as -en in poetry, especially pre-vocalically or at the end of a line. This is especially common with the copula fā́ra. See more: Movable nu (Wikipedia)

Other examples of stative verbs

Past tense

As was the case in Pre-Caliprian, a conjugated past tense had not survived into Ladic Caliprian, being replaced instead by a periphrastic construction with the verb’s past participle followed by the copula (fā́ra “I am”).

The past participle cannot always be known for a verb but generally imperfective verbs’ past participles end in -ilós (e.g kerilós from kério “I travel”) whilst perfective verbs’ past participles end in -lós (e.g feplós from fáupa “I shall speak”). There are also some irregular past participles ending in -tós (e.g distós from déiska “I shall point out”).

The past participle declines as an adjective to the gender of the subject, just as the copula itself conjugates for the subject.

Past tense with íra

The verb íra “I was” is a peculiar perfective verb as its default meaning is past rather than future. In Ladic Caliprian, however, it was becoming increasingly common to use íra in place of fā́ra when forming the periphrastic past tense, at least in the spoken venacular and some pieces of artistic writing. It is thought that this was the influence of non-Ladic classical dialects in the later stages of the classical period.


First person

  Singular Plural (mixed/masculine) Plural (feminine)
Nominative ígo féi fiá
Accusative imé / me† asmé / nos† fiā́m / na†
Genitive imén / men† ariá / nos† fiás / na†
Ablative iméd / med† asméd fiás
Dative imói / moi† asméi / as† fiā́i
Instrumental imói / moi† asmī́ fiā́i


unstressed form

Second person

  Singular (masculine) Singular (feminine) Plural (mixed/masculine) Plural (feminine)
Nominative tū́ tā́u iū́ iā́u
Accusative tā́um usmé / †fṓs iā́um
Genitive tḗ tā́us iusiá / †fós iā́us
Ablative téd tā́us usméd iā́us
Dative tói tā́i usméi iā́i
Instrumental tói tā́i usmī́ iā́i


unstressed form

Third person

The third person pronouns come from the Pre-Caliprian generic endophoric pronouns.

  Singular (masculine) Singular (feminine) Singular (neuter) Plural (mixed/masc.) Plural (feminine) Plural (neuter)
Nominative hī́ íd hói hái ī́
Accusative tóm tám íd tṓs tā́is ī́
Genitive tória tórias íra tóiōm tā́rōm írom
Ablative tód tórias ísmo tóimos tā́mos ímos
Dative téi tóriāi ísmoi tóiru tā́ru íru
Instrumental tóno tória ísmī tṓis tā́i íbi



The distal demonstrative was used to refer to a referent far from the speaker, whether it was close to the listener or not.

  Singular (masculine) Singular (feminine) Singular (neuter) Plural (mixed/masc.) Plural (feminine) Plural (neuter)
Nominative ós ósī ósto(d) óstoi óstāis ósta
Accusative óstom óstam ósto(d) óstoi óstāms ósta
Genitive óstoria óstas óstoria óstōm óstāum óstōm
Ablative óste óstas óste óstomos óstāmos óstoimos
Dative óstei óstāi óstōi óstoisu óstāsu óstoisu
Instrumental ósto(n) óstāi ósto(n) óstṓis óstāi óstṓis


A letter between parantheses represents a letter that is included when the determiner precedes a word beginning with a vowel but is left out otherwise.


The proximal demonstrative was generally used to refer to a referent close to the speaker, though some later accounts of spoken Ladic seem to indicate that it had already begun a transition to being closer to a definite article for many speakers.

  Singular (masculine) Singular (feminine) Singular (neuter) Plural (mixed/masc.) Plural (feminine) Plural (neuter)
Nominative kiós kiá kiód kiói kiā́is kiá
Accusative kióm kiám kiód kióms kiā́is kiá
Genitive kiória kiórias kiória kióirōm kiā́rōm kióirōm
Ablative kióst kiórias kióst kióimos kiā́mos kióimos
Dative kiói kióriāi kiói kióiru kiā́ru kióimu
Instrumental kióno kiória kióno kiṓis kiā́i kiṓis

Definite article

The definite article only featured in the very late stages of Ladic Caliprian, only being seen in writing from around 300BC.

It derives from an unstressed form of the proximal article kiós, potentially with influence from similar determiners that survived in other contemporary dialects, all from Proto-Indo-European *ḱe.

  Singular (masculine) Singular (feminine) Singular (neuter) Plural (mixed/masc.) Plural (feminine) Plural (neuter)
Nominative ki kia ki / kid† kioi kiai kia
Accusative kim kiam ki / kid† kiom kiai kia
Genitive kior kior kior kioir kiar kioir
Ablative kios kior kios kioim kiam kioim
Dative kioi kiai kioi kioir kiar kioim
Instrumental kion kior kion kioi kiai kioi


before a vowel


The grammatical rigidity of Ladic Caliprian meant that syntactic fluidity was very common, especially in poetry. However, most speech and less stylised writing tended to retain some fundamental principles:


Ezekiel 34:27

Δρής φήμ ͱίρομ γένιστ κα δάνα φήμ ͱιόρομ γένιστ; κρῑ́μος άνα φήμ τέρσαμ πῡ́τ.

Drḗs fḗm hírom génist ka dána fḗm hiórom génist; krī́mos ána fḗm térsam pū́t.

/ˈdreːs feːm ˈhirom ˈgenist ka ˈdana feːm ˈhi̯orom ˈgenist | ˈkriːmos ˈana feːm ˈtersam puːt/

The trees will yield their fruit and the ground will yield its crops; the people will be secure in their land.